Yanko Hristov

On the Captivity and Release from It in the Book XLIX. 15. of the Digest of Emperor Justinian I (527 – 565)


Not surprisingly, one can say that without attention to the captivity and slavery the studies of all pre-modern societies hardly would have achieved considerable accomplishment. Along with this, however, as regards the monitoring of aspects about the fate of the war-captives in the early Byzantine era, it looks as if there are enough things to add. The very moment of those caught up in enemy’s hands, apart from not such a large number of publications specifically concerning the problem, is usually passed by. The starting point, in an attempt to explore the issue of captives and slaves in the down of the Early Medieval epoch in the Eastern Mediterranean and its surroundings is related to the state of the source basis. Due to the nature and the long term impact of well known legal compilations in the time of Emperor Justinian I, the lavish clues in Digest XLIX.15 provide an opportunity for inflicting additional touches.

Marriage And Divorce Law In The Vardar Valley Of The Thirteenth Century


Аспектите и проблемите, отнасящи се до всекидневния живот през Средно-вековието отдавна са част от изследователските разработки за епохата. В споменатата насока обаче, сякаш все още има какво да се постигне. Особено що се отнася до се-мейни и семейно-правни отношения във редица региони от българското етническо и политическо пространство.

В тази връзка сбирката с документи на Охридската архие-пископия, известна под названието Ponemata diaphora, представлява първостепенен източник на информация за форми на извънбрачно съжителство, междуполови кон-такти, разтрогване на незаконни или нестабилни бракове и разкриване на валидните правни основания за това в православния свят на Балканите през XIII век.

On The Law For Judging The People And Of Slavery In The First Bulgarian State After The Christening


The Law for judging the people is one of the earliest Slavonic juridical texts. Authorship, time and place of its origin have been discussed for many years. While striving to relate the regarded juridical text with the situation of Great Moravia, The First Bulgarian state, or the ninth century Struma valley, scholars have focused on large variety of political, cultural, religious peculiarities and linguistic data.

The results of these researches are indisputable. At present it can be summarized that the Law for judging the people was most probably a part of the literary activities of St. Methodius (and / or close associates) in Great Moravia and was spread among the Orthodox Slavs form the late ninth century onwards. In new scholarly efforts concerning the development of medieval Bulgaria the above mentioned juridical text has still a lot to offer. Within the vast frameworks of such research field the problem of slavery in the tenth century Bulgarian society is more than a possible topic to be elaborated.  

Soul То Soul About The Exchange Of War - Captives Between Bulgaria And Byzantium In The Early Medieval Epoch


There is not substantial reserve that in entire medieval epoch captured warriors and abducted non-combatants have been used as means of extracting the military, political and economic benefits. It is well acknowledged that practices concerning prisoners of war depend on the selected goals as well as the course of the conflict and attitude towards own warriors and subjects captured by the rival power. The fate of early medieval war-captives caught up in enemy’s hands during the clashes between Bulgaria and Byzan-tium makes no exeption.

Along with this, it looks as if there are enough things to add. For example, the exchange of prisoners of war is one of the most important features which need further specification and analyses. The impact of such a practice on the Byzantino-Bulgarian relations still is unstudied enough. Even scarce and almost totally ignored is the attention to the legal status of Byzantine subjects who were taken into captivity by Bulga-rians. In this sense, the scientific interest within the scope of metioned topics is an inseparable part of the efforts to give more density and depth of knowledge for the early medieval past of the Balkans.